20220414

"Alpha", "Beta" and "Gamma" - (GaWC)

 The cities in the 2020 classification are as follows.[5]

(Increase1) or (Decrease1) indicates a city moved one category up or down since the 2018 classification.[6]

Alpha[edit]

Alpha level cities are linked to major economic states and regions and into the world economy and are classified into four sections, Alpha ++, Alpha +, Alpha, and Alpha − cities.

Alpha ++[edit]

Alpha ++ cities are cities most integrated with the global economy:

Alpha +[edit]

Alpha + cities are highly integrated cities, filling advanced service needs:

Alpha[edit]

Alpha −[edit]

Beta[edit]

Beta level cities are cities that link moderate economic regions to the world economy and are classified into three sections, Beta +, Beta, and Beta − cities.

Beta +[edit]

Beta[edit]

Beta −[edit]

Gamma[edit]

Gamma level cities are cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy and are classified into three sections, Gamma +, Gamma, and Gamma − cities.

Gamma +[edit]

Gamma[edit]

Gamma −[edit]

Sufficiency[edit]

Sufficiency level cities are cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be overly dependent on world cities. This is sorted into High Sufficiency cities and Sufficiency cities.

High Sufficiency[edit]

Sufficiency[edit]

No longer classified[edit]

The following cities were included in the 2018 edition, but not in the 2020 edition:

See also[edit]